The Creative Launcher <p><a href=""><img src="" alt="" width="95" height="86" /> </a><img src="" alt="" width="99" height="96" /> <img src="" alt="" width="109" height="54" /><img src="" alt="" width="162" height="49" /></p> <p><a class="read-more" style="background: 0px 0px #e51515; border-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.21) rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.21) rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.34); border-image: initial; border-radius: 3px; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px; box-shadow: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.34) 0px 1px 0px inset, rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.13) 0px 2px 0px -1px, rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.08) 0px 3px 0px -1px, rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.21) 0px 3px 13px -1px; box-sizing: border-box; color: white; display: inline-block; font-family: 'Open Sans', sans-serif; font-size: 13px; font-weight: 600; height: 25px; line-height: 25px; margin: 12px 0px 0px; padding: 0px 10px; text-decoration-line: none; text-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.15) 1px 2px 0px; transition: background 0.17s ease 0s; vertical-align: baseline;" href="">Welcome </a><span style="background-color: white; font-size: 14px; text-align: justify;"> </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="background: white; font-size: 10.5pt; line-height: 115%;">The Creative Launcher (2455-6580) is An International, high quality, peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes articles in all areas of English language and literature. The main objective of the Journal is to discuss global prospects and innovations concerning major issues of literature, to publish new analyses and the studies of African American Literature, American Literature, Art, Aesthetics, Myth, Culture and Folklore, British Literature, Canadian Literature, Children’s Literature, Commonwealth Literature, Comparative Literature, Cultural Studies, Cyber Literature, Dalit Literature, Diaspora Studies, Disability Studies, Disaster Literature, English Language Teaching, Gender Studies, Post-Colonial Literature, Indian Literature in English, Pakistan English Literature, SAARC Literature, Linguistics, Science Fiction and Cultural Analysis and Translation Studies and Literature and theory of literature. The Journal seeks to stimulate the initiation of new research and ideas in English literature for the purpose of integration and interaction of international specialists in the development of literature as interdisciplinary knowledge. It particularly welcomes articles on research in various fields of English Literature and language. The journal encourages critical rigour, fresh insights and creative writing skills to its readers and writers. Research articles from all areas of English Literature, English Language Teaching, Short-Essays, Book-Reviews, Interviews, Poems, Short-Stories, Translated Works and Monologues etc. are entertained in this journal. The highest priority is given to research reports that are specifically written for English Literature and its allied areas. The audience is primarily researchers and academicians in various fields concerning English Literature and Language. It has received a wide range of audiences and readers throughout the world.</span></p> <p><span style="background-color: white; font-size: 14px; text-align: justify;"> </span></p> en-US (Dr. Ram Avadh Prajapati) (Dr. Ram Avadh Prajapati) Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Goethe’s “Welt” poet in Bengal: The Influence of World Literature on Jibanananda Das and other Bengali Poets of the 1930s-40s <p>This study aims to establish a link between the concept of “Weltliteratur” or World Literature, in terms of the free movement of literary themes and ideas between nations in original form or translation, and the Bengali poets of the thirties and forties who actively translated French and German poets. It identifies Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's (1749-1832) concept of World Literature as a vehicle for the&nbsp;Kallol Jug poets. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe introduced the concept of “Weltliteratur” in a few of his essays in the first half of the nineteenth century to describe the international circulation and reception of literary works in Europe, including works of non-Western origin. My emphasis will be on Jibanananda Das (1899-1954) arguably the most celebrated poet in Bengali literature who was well versed in the contemporary Western Canons of Poetry. Jibanananda’s defamiliarization of the rural Bengal Landscape, his use of exotic foreign images owe a debt to contemporary European poets. Interestingly, Jibanananda had reviewed an English translation of German author Thomas Mann’s novel “Dr Faustus’ for a Bengali magazine “Chaturanga”. In the Bengali review he states that despite prevalent misconceptions (some critics considering the novel to be superior to the original Faust epic by Goethe) Goethe’s Faust was the first text to capture the hope, despair and crisis in the modern world and articulate it in such a manner that “true” literature of the age was created in its new light. In Jibanananda’s estimation, Thomas Mann deserves credit for treating the Faust legend in a unique and creative way.</p> Firoze Basu Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Industries and Tribal: Erosion of Their Ethos <p>Tribal issue is a matter of global concern. In India around 8.8% of the total population consist of tribal. They are of primitive human civilisation of India. The major tribes in India are the Gonds, the Bhils, the Santals, the Oraons, the Minas and the Mundas. Eighty percent of the tribes are found in the central region of India. ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­If we look back in the history of pre-independent India, the tribes’ position was not in much privileged; they are intended for the laborious job, a kind of slaves under the British colonials. Later on, a decade of independence, unfortunately there are virtually no alterations in the present socio-economic scenario of the tribe’s conditions. Tribes are treated as outsiders and unwanted in their own homeland by the modern capitalist’s society. In the process of national development tribes and their cultural identity is badly affected as compared to any other community as the <em>second Five Year Plan</em> was modelled on the idea of <em>either industrialisation or perish, </em>providing the front seat of debates and decision only to the economic issues. Tribal areas have been comprehended as the heaven of natural resources by the industrial houses and investors. As a consequence, thousands of industrial projects are installed by the investors in or near these tribal areas for the rude fabrics of the yields. And the tribes were disowned from their lands and homes; forced to migrate from their traditional sources of livelihood – <em>Jal, Jungal and Zamin</em>, leaving their culture, tradition and identity to a critical stage. This paper concentrates on the impact of industrialization in the tribal regions and their economic and social inclusion in the mainstream resulting in their dichotomy of existence and alienation.</p> Mujaffar Hossain Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Silent Struggles: Women in Salma’s The Hour Past Midnight <p>The paper intends to analyse the heroic lives of Muslim women, who are oppressed in the name of culture, tradition, and religion through a textual analysis of the novel <em>The Hour Past Midnight, </em>written by the Tamil writer Salma and translated by Lakshmi Holmstrom. The paper explores the struggles faced by the hero(in)es in the novel. Originally written in Tamil, and entitled <em>Irandaam Jaamathin Kadhai, </em>the novel depicts the challenging lives of Muslim women living in a cloistered space. The novel narrates the incidents in the lives of Rabia, her mother Zohra; Rahima, Wahida, Firdaus, Mumtaz, Farida and some other women of the neighbourhood. All of them are victims of the misogynist and patriarchal mind-set of their community. Some of these women stay silent, and endure every kind of pain and suffering with extreme patience and resilience. Others choose to defy the norms which are set for them and live on their terms. They stand up for their individuality, rights, and dignity. Each of these women, nonetheless, demonstrates heroic courage, fortitude, resilience, and resistance. By facing the predicament of their lives boldly, and by challenging the patriarchal institutions, these characters demonstrate that each of them is an individual full of potential.</p> Dr. Shayequa Tanzeel Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Art as the Commentary of Life <p>Literature has always been a mighty weapon in bringing reality to surface. It is the reflection of mirror in the form of print that actually ushers to forefront the reality of life. The main aim of art is to revolutionize the world in general and society in particular. “Art for the Sake of Life” generally refers to the notion that art makes us understand the conduct of everyday life. Although art encompasses literature yet it is more than that because it deals with every aspect of our life. It is the way to justify the grim realities of life while beautifying them. As a famous writer James Baldwin accords that “one can’t write a line without a message”. Art is a way of expressing oneself. Many people use it to express boundless emotions and thoughts, from turbulence to euphoria to bewilderment that everyone has within the heart, mind and soul.&nbsp;The authors have discovered an escape through art to seek meaning via truth, not just for the sake of art, but for the sake of life. Writers tweak the image of specific challenges so that a reader can see them through the same lens. George Bernard Shaw also avows that “For&nbsp;art’s sake&nbsp;alone&nbsp;I would not face the&nbsp;toil&nbsp;of&nbsp;writing&nbsp;a&nbsp;single&nbsp;sentence”. So, an artist should be moralist encumbered with a reforming zeal. Thus “Art for the sake of life” is a maxim that should be applied to all art; art with style, sophistication, pathos, and psychological resonance. It is not thus for the art’s sake rather it is for the life’s sake or social sake. Art is a medicine or elixir of pain which makes life bearable. The main aim of this paper is to showcase how art in general as well as in particular is only for life’s sake and not for art’s sake. Art thus has a cosmic phenomenon with a universal impact.</p> Sadaf Mushtaq Nasti Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Representation of Indian Religion in the Short Stories of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala <p>India, with its plethora of religions and cultures, has been an enigmatic place for foreigners. Hinduism, a way of life more than being a religion (as proclaimed by the Supreme Court of India), has often been misunderstood by outsiders. Sometimes a biased attitude is reflected in the literature produced by these foreigners. A person like Thomas Babington Macaulay, who himself admitted that he had no knowledge of Sanskrit or Arabic, had the foolish courage of saying that a single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia. In this paper we shall analyze the representation of religion in the short stories of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala.</p> Surendra Singh Jadaun , Dr. Shyam ji Dubey Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gendered Violence: A Look at Northeast Women’s Writing as Literary Interventions <p>There are more than enough writings and debates on political conflict and violence in the Northeast region of India, but violence targeted at women specifically, has not received equal attention. This paper aims to initiate honest and serious critical examinations about sexual abuse and other forms of gendered violence that are inflicted on women in these communities, but which continues to remain like a taboo subject. Violence against women in Northeast has roots deep in cultural and colonial history. Set against this context, the paper is based on a framework of referencing literary studies and intersecting it with empirical evidence from other relevant studies. The literary works are all based on actual lived experiences of women. Hence these writings also intersect with and validate the social reality of our times. It also highlights how Northeast women writers have been voicing and questioning the silence and shame attached to this issue through their writings. The paper contends that these significant literary interventions into gendered violence are noteworthy and point to the need for understanding the experiences of tribal Northeast women from their specific context.</p> Dr. Vizovono Elizabeth Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Re-reading Tagore’s The Home and the World: A Study of Contesting Modernities <p>The present paper attempts to focus the model of contesting modernities dealing with conceptual problems rather than the importance of logic and science. <em>The Home and the World</em> (1916), written by Rabindanath Tagore, a fictional autobiographical novel can be read as the model of contesting modernities. In the research article, it is an attempt to explore the textual responses to contesting forms of modernity in abstract ideas about the issues of nation and gender in the context of Swadeshi Bengal in the early decades of twentieth century. After re-reading the text, it can be applied to the larger question of formation of nation and true nationalist and liberty of women. The novel grows out of the anti-partition Swadeshi movement, the issues of the home and the world, the tradition and the modern approach of life. The novel focuses the battle of ideas between western culture and revolution against the western culture in colonial period. Two protagonists of the novel such as Nikhilesh and Sandip in the novel represents two kinds of ideas in the light of the spirit of the Modern age as revealed in <em>Sabuj Patra</em>. From their ideas reveal two types of nationalists’ project. Nationalism always can be viewed as a process of cultural invention. Nikhilesh is a logical man and supports for non-violence. He likes true mental freedom that can be achieved by the projects of nationalism full of humanism. At the other hand, Sandip prefers to aggressive political freedom and power after grabbing over other nations and national resources. Bimala, third protagonist, is ultimately disillusioned to the nationalist project of Sandip about the emancipation of gender. So Modernity, the recreated form of culture can be viewed with humanistic features such as love, co-operation, sympathy, sacrifice etc.</p> Dibaranjan Mondal Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Elements of Supernatural and Magic Realism in Toni Morrison’s Beloved <p>The present research paper is a study of the elements of Magic Realism and the supernatural elements in the novel, <em>Beloved </em>by the Nobel laureate novelist Toni Morrison. The term Magic Realism was originally applied in the 1920s to the school of surrealist German painters and was later used to describe the process fiction of writers like George Luis Burges, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and Salman Rushdie etc. These writers weave a sharply etched realism representing ordinary events and details together with fantastic and dream-like elements, as well as with material derived from myth and fairy tales. The German critic Franz Roz introduced the concept of Magic realism in 1920 and it was first used in paintings. The term was introduced in the book <em>Post-expressionism, Magic Realism: Problem of the Most Recent European Paintings in 1925.</em> The purpose here is to analyze the elements of magic realism in the novel, <em>Beloved</em>. We can see supernatural elements in Sethe’s house that bring chaos by haunting everyone through its mysterious presence, and making Sethe’s both the sons Howard and Buglar run away. It appears to be the ghost of a baby which was murdered by Sethe. The ghost causes the things in the house to break and shake mysteriously. In magic realism fiction the ghosts are the central characters generally. In the novel <em>Beloved</em> Morrison has portrayed the ghost as a living person. Thus, the dominance of a unique, mystical and gloomy atmosphere can be seen throughout the novel.</p> Prof. Sanjay Kumar Swarnkar, Shalini Shukla Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Existentialism in Anita Nair’s Ladies Coupe <p>This paper is an attempt to explore the fragrance of existentialism in Anita Nair’s <em>Ladies Coupe</em>. She was born on 26<sup>th</sup> Jan., 1966. She has penned down three very famous novels; <em>The Better Man</em> (1999), <em>Ladies Coupe</em> (2001) and <em>Mistress</em> (2005). She happens to be a multi-talented literary figure, holding her authority not only in the field of fiction but also that of poetry. She is better known as a competent modern woman-novelist in the realm of Indian English literature of the modern age. Currently she lives in Bangalore. <em>Ladies Coupe</em> is basically a novel of the “feminine sensibility” but it remains unsuited to the category of the female-writing that represented women as “battered, bartered and abandoned” on the shoals of low self-worth. It rides triumphantly against the tide giving us a glimpse of the innate strength that a woman has to rebuild up her life. This is why Nair has called her novel a story revealing about “ordinary women with indomitable spirit”. Unlike her first novel – ‘The Better Man’, having a male protagonist, Nair’s ‘Ladies Coupe’, rotates around the 45 year old bachelor Akhila or Akhilendeswari, being a pen pusher in the Income Tax Department. She has gone fed up with the lone provider in her family. One day, she happens to get a ticket booked for Kanyakumari to explore certain answers for herself, mainly to the question if a woman is able to make her survival alone, being away from her family. There are five other women accompanying her for the overnight journey. They are Janaki, married with Margaret, a forty year old young Chemistry-teacher, Prabha Devi, very close to Akhila’s age, the fifteen year old Sheela and Mariakonthu, a woman who is obviously different from the rest of them. All these women connect their life-stories to Akhila, helping the latter to gain her full potential woman and struggle with the response to the questions she has been searching out so long. Thus this paper analyses the search-operation of Akhila as she arrives by degrees as to how she should live her life freely and maintain her own identity in this patriarchal society. Anita Nair has paid emphasis on the fact that it is not the response to the question which has been alluding Akhila so long, but the search for exploring it which is more pleasant to the protagonist. The central character Akhila’s responsibility has been considerably exposed. She has found the potential to come out more afresh from the prison-house of her old-self as symbolized by the stiffness of the cotton saris she always used to put on while working. She can at least switch back to her previous life where perhaps nothing could have changed on the surface but on a mental plane a sure process of development has occurred.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Dr. Ratnesh Baranwal Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Chetan Bhagat: Recent Readings: Mental conflicts of Indian women in One Indian Girl <p>This chapter is written to have a look at Chetan Bhagat’s novel One Indian Girl from cerebral angle to acknowledge a deviation in Indian Women’s demeanor and behaviour. Indian women’s mind is full of conflicts and confusion. They have to deal with social stereotypes.&nbsp; Our society believes that girls can make a successful career either or a successful home. Can’t do both together. What an astonishment! We give wings to our daughters but then she is told that she has to build a nest. So she has to forget to fly. Chetan Bhagat’s novel&nbsp;One Indian Girl&nbsp;offers a female’s anima – her goals and inclination in her thoughts and geared up to flare up and ensue at even the slightest pierce. Radhika Mehta cogitates a maiden who is a sturdy backer of feminist ideology however she has to confront the pre-determined norms of Indian society that have been set below patriarchal society because of which she has to go through numerous sorts of torments and distress. This narrative is generally about Radhika, the proponent, unveiling the exceptional elements of a modern-day Indian woman. Radhika’s social reputation influences society to a great extent that she turns into a vulnerable target of many known and unknown conditions which vexed her unfulfilled objectives of not getting bodily love and appreciation. Radhika’s unfulfilled dreams take her foundation within side the discrimination meted to her in her formative years and youth. It is a first-character narrative through the protagonist whose internal voice (named ‘Mini-me’) constantly expresses her internal feelings and the mental conflicts occurring in her thoughts.</p> Ms. Madhu Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The White Tiger: A Novel with Paradox & Irony <p><em>The White Tiger</em> is an epistolary novel in seven parts with shocking fictional narrative. The protagonist Balram is an anti-hero, cleverly escapes from his crime; his innocence gone with the taste of fugitive life and become a criminal; boosted never to be catch by police. Balram’s journey starts from Laxmangarh to Delhi and to Bangalore. The writer presents a riveting tale of the realistic anti-hero Balram Halwai, who although born in the most humble surrounding, ambitions to rise above his predetermined fate to be born and die in “the darkness” and achieves it through his ruthless planning of the murder of his master Ashok. Balrams’ ascend represents subalterns’ progress in post colonial world; it is a protest that no bigotry any more is tolerable. &nbsp;He broke <em>‘the Rooster Coop’</em> and became <em>The White Tiger</em>. Balram’s acts are the product of age old resentment of marginalised generations; exhibit revenge therapy. This work advocates wild justice.&nbsp; This novel is well stuffed with paradox and irony.</p> Dr. Ashish Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Merging Identities: A Study of Jhumpa Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies <p>Jhumpa Lahiri’s characters in her short story collection <em>Interpreter of Maladies </em>keep wandering between the two worlds- one in their homeland and the other in the country where they choose to live and die. Lahiri records the emotional journey of characters seeking love and searching their identity beyond the barricade of nations, cultures, religions and generations. Mr. Kapasi is an interpreter of maladies and the malady of Mrs. Das is to be an unfamiliar person to her family’s culture, as Lahiri herself is an erudite interpreter of maladies- both social and emotional. Since, Mrs. Das is undertaking a second migration, she turns to be an interpreter like Mr. Kapasi whose job interests her so much. The characters’ longing to belong to either or both the habitats, their urge to de-stress the distress of alienation by searching an identity in their native heritage add value to the writer’s creative intensity. She illustrates her characters sprouting in the centre of a new crossbreed culture, the Indo-American awareness as Lahiri herself, the true representative of the second generation Indian in America.</p> Dr. Padmini Sahu Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Sacks of Mutilated Breasts: Violence against Women and Body Politics in Partition Literature <p>South Asian writers’ partition accounts attest that women from all backgrounds of culture and religion were the worst victims of the newly-created India-Pakistan border of 1947. Women's bodies were kidnapped, stripped naked, raped, disfigured (their breasts were cut off), engraved with religious symbols, and slain before being transported in train carriages to the "other" side of the border. Taking the romantic example of Bapsi Sidhwa’s <em>Ice Candy Man/Cracking India</em> (1988), we will look at the symbol of women's breasts, following on the theories of Judith Butler and Michel Foucault on power and governmentality, framed within the rhetoric of Mother India, where violence against women is a commonplace Bapsis Sidhwa’s theory of women's rights. As a result, we will examine the passage of sacks of damaged breasts as a horrible testimony to Partition history and as a metaphor for border crossing, undermining the nation's stability. In light of Julia Kristen's abjection theory, we will view female corpses with damaged breasts as abject who push the bounds of normative society, exposing its frailty. Finally, the novel covered in this document can be seen both as a disgraceful condemnation of a brutal de/colonial process and as a witch for feminist resistance (doing Herstory). The agony and grief of mutilated women's bodies are depicted in authors such as Bapsi Sidhwa to reveal the dialectic of history/body (the trajectory of the violation of women's rights).</p> Puneet Singh Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Plight of the Female Protagonist Depicted in Doris Lessing’s The Grass Is Singing <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 115%;"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0e101a;">The Woman is a God-given boon to mankind. She is the most lively and endearing personality on the earth because of her never-ending compassion and her care for fellow human beings. She is such a protective shield for humanity that tolerates everything with a smile. But ironically this male-dominated society has been harming, crushing, and suppressing its armor for centuries. The status of a woman in our society is still debatable. A woman sacrifices her desires, aspirations, and ambitions at every phase of her life sometimes by being a daughter, a wife, a sister, or a mother. From time to time woman finds herself in such an odd and precarious situation that later causes her plight. The present paper attempts to explain the plight of the female protagonist, Mary Turner in the novel <em>The Grass Is Singing</em> written by Nobel Prize winner Doris Lessing.</span></p> Leena Gautam Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Element of Irishness in Seamus Heaney’s poem ‘Digging’ <p>Seamus Heaney is considered one of the greatest poets of the postmodern era, his name and fame travelled across the Irish borders by winning the 1995 Nobel Prize in literature. Seamus Heaney was born in Ireland; he was the only child in his family to attend the school, His family members were traditional potato farmers. Seamus Heaney broke his family tradition of farming by choosing to become a writer. While growing up to become a first graduate among his family Seamus Heaney’s mind was captured by this sense of gloom that he was unable to follow his family tradition of farming. Seamus Heaney promises himself that he will pay rich tribute and let the world know about the hardships of Irish farming life. Seamus Heaney’s main concern for writing poetry was to keep alive Irish culture and its heritage alive. Since Ireland was under the colonial rule of England and Seamus Heaney was of the view that colonization is not only a political problem, but it destroys the country's culture and identity. This was the main reason that Heaney’s poetry revolves around Irishness, its people and culture. There is an enormous reflection of Irish identity and culture in his poetry. This paper will focus on elements of Irishness in Seamus Heaney’s poem ‘Digging’.&nbsp;</p> Rayees Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Repression and Resistance in Dalit Feminist Literature <p>Feminist movements and Dalit feminist movement in India are mainly based on the experience of Repression and gender discrimination. Patriarchy, gender disparity and sexual violence are the basic reasons for these movements and they also find place prominently in the writings of Dalit women as they have come forward to write their experiences from women's point of view around 1980s. Baby Kamble, Urmila Pawar in Marathi, Geeta Nagabhushan in Kannada, P. Shivakami, Bama in Tamil have got national level consideration. Dalit women were raped; insulted and abused by the upper caste people. They are insecure in the society as they have been exploited on the various levels. This feeling of insecurity of the Dalit women is the central theme of their writings. These women writers have come forward to express their ideas, their experiences in social violence as well as in domestic violence and thus they protest their traditional existence with anger and anguish. Geeta Nagabhushan’s dalit novels, Barna’s <em>Sangati </em>(2005), P. Shivakani's <em>Grip of Change </em>(2006) are initial important writings of dalit feminism; Datit feminism writing is different from the conventional way of Feminist writing. Their experiences, expression, method of narration are extremely different from the upper caste women writers. It is found that every woman in the world has been degraded to second grade citizenship. The Dalit women in India suffer more due to their Dalit identity.</p> Shuddhodhan P. Kamble Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Interdisciplinary Theories Regarding Maritime Nautical Literature <p>Maritime or (Nautical literature) was ruling the period during the 18<sup>th</sup> century which was followed by 19<sup>th</sup>-century writers. These novels depict the effects on the environment, society and economy of the people. In this study, it is observed that the concept approach towards the Interdisciplinary theory with connection to the people’s thoughts regarding the sea, their religious or holistic approaches, and the gender description given to describe the sea were correlated with some famous nautical novel with notable incidents or theories to prove that the attributes of plots might be different but the themes relating to such sea novels/aquatic novels are more or less similar to each other and they serve some standard settings and motifs on the whole. The study reveals that maritime novels where written in distinctive plots but the themes are more or less focused on masculinity (gender roles) and heroism, social hierarchies and the psychological and holistic transformation during their hard existence in the sea. Ethical approach, the symbolism of sea and the gender roles are used in this regard of research dealing with interdisciplinary theory.</p> Akila P S Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Study of Magic Realism in Works of Neil Gaiman and Angela Carter <p>Since the release of Gabriel Garciá Márquez’s<em> One Hundred Years of Solitude</em>, Magical Realism has been in favour as a narrative style or genre in adult fiction. The representation of the genre in children’s and juvenile literature, on the other hand, is a recent trend; the components of the genre have been tracked and proven to be genuinely important in the interpretation of current children’s fiction, such as David Almond’s <em>Skelling</em> (1998). The aim of this paper is to look at the elements of magical realism in Neil Gaiman’s<em> Coraline</em> and Angela Carter’s <em>Nights at the Circus</em> works in this respect.</p> Mahesh Chandra Tiwari Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Overview of the Complexities in Indian Feminism <p>The paper aims to highlight the complexities that are dominant in Indian society. The variety of issues that makes Indian feminism different from western feminism is also explored. The present paper presents a brief overview of western feminism, however, a large portion discuss the Indian feministic concerns and issue. The paper is not limited to any particular writer or writing of an author but it is an eclectic approach to present the subtle difficulties of Indian feminism in the best possible way. The focus is largely on the third and fourth wave of feminism. Giving the increasing insecurities of women even in this digital era, the paper therefore is a humble effort in that direction to bring some of the merging issues and concerns of women in general and Indian women in particular to the forefront. An eclectic approach has been used for the evaluation of the issues and concerns therefore the paper highlights various feministic issues like cultural social, economic individual, Islamic etc. associated with different branches of feminism.</p> Dr. Mudasir Ahmad Gori Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Issues and Intricacies in Shobha De’s Select Novels <p>Shobha De, a feminist writer, depicts her female protagonists in a forceful way and uses the plot to emphasize her point that personal is not private but political. The protagonists in her works were outspoken critics of conventional society and its rules. They are not the typical women who accept abusive, unsatisfying, or uncomfortable relationships (in all aspects). It could be male dominance, objectification, sexual discontent, passion, or something else entirely. They don't keep it hidden because they believe it is taboo. On the other hand, the male characters are not shown as villains, but it is evident from the plot that they are products of patriarchal society. Gender issues in her works aren't about female oppression in terms of domestic violence; rather, they are about the sexual vacuum that all of the female characters experience. Male characters were traditionally assigned duties such as sexually active, powerful, and have self-identity, but these female figures defy such stereotypes. They represent women by demonstrating that they too have sexual wants, power, and a need for self-identity. As a result, this research focuses on Shobha De’s novels <em>Socialite Evenings </em>(1989),<em> Sisters </em>(1992), <em>Starry Nights </em>(1991),<em> Second Thoughts </em>(1996), which all deal with gender issues. The study not only examines issues but sheds light on the protagonists' struggles to find self-identity.</p> Ollala Srinivas Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Aspects of the Narratives of Slavery in the Afro-American Literature as Represented by Harriet Jacobs and Frederick Douglass’ Works <p>Harriet Ann Jacobs’ <em>Incidents in the life of a Slave Girl</em> (1861) and Frederick Douglass’ <em>Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave</em> (1845) are two very significant works to show slave narratives Afro-American Literature. They provide many aspects in attempting to portray the complex sufferings and different kinds of frustrations, especially that the threat to the existence of their families and their rights as human beings in American society. The works present real stories and scenes lived by both writers in that dark era. The article makes a kind of comparison between them to highlight how both sexes suffered to the same extent. Jacobs represented the female side while Douglass represented the male side of black slaves in America through their works. The article aims to shed light on the brutal effect of slave and the crimes of the racist white American people upon these vulnerable people in a society of an ideal country in which the worst forms of racism are still practiced and the murder of George Floyd’s crime is not far from us. Therefore, it is the duty of the free people of the whole world to expose these heinous acts and work to prevent them and support the oppressed.</p> Hasan Marwan Yahay Al Saleem Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Existential Dilemma in Toni Morrison’s Beloved <p>Toni Morrison verbalizes in novel manners the pain and battle of a traumatized self and local area. In her novels, the traumatic truth of a dark self shows itself in the characters' self-hatred and self-disdain, and in the deficiency of their individual and cultural identity. Her fiction resolves issues of African American history, traumatizing experience and identity, often additionally captivating with inquiries of sex and sex, and, less significantly, class. When writing in a climate where everything except a couple of dark writers battled for acknowledgment, presently the subject of much recognition, Morrison’s work has provoked various and assorted basic reactions. The Beloved and Song of Solomon utilize the devices of disruption, corruption and sensuality to portray the traumatic encounters of the Black ladies’ heroes. During the last fifteen or so years grant treating the Morrison oeuvre has blossomed, making her clearly quite possibly the most talked about creators of the contemporary time frame. Toni Morrison’s In her novel, <em>Beloved</em> (1987), Toni Morrison shows the overwhelming impacts of slavery and its specialist disasters as these impacts show themselves through numerous ages of one family. The trauma of slavery is with the end goal that nobody contacted by it can break liberated from the past, even a long time after actual freedom. This is valid for the novel's hero, Sethe, a once in the past oppressed lady living in Cincinnati after the Civil War and third novel Song of Solomon (1977) goes about as a milestone in her profession, since it uncovers the imaginative development she has acquired, and furthermore presents the arrangement she has observed to tackle the overwhelming issues she depicts in her initially traumatizing novel. The distinctive traumatic occasions make Morrison's novels appropriate for logo helpful perusing and examination.</p> Manu, Dr. Abha Shukla Kaushik Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Amitav Ghosh’ Shadow Lines: Mapping Cross Border Identity <p><em>The Shadow Lines </em>(1988) is a historical novel by Amitav Ghosh that focuses on the national and geographical boundaries that alienate individuals. The book also depicts the violence that erupted in 1964. The title “The Shadow Lines” has multiple layers of meanings; it does not only relate to international boundaries. Ghosh’s choice of the title implies that the boundaries that divide people are just ‘shadows’. Those borders are nothing but artificial and fictitious lines drawn by people from power centre. Ghosh emphasises arbitrary nature of such geographic demarcations. This paper tends to identify the identity of people who did cross geographical borders forcefully or voluntarily and how memory and nostalgia loom large upon them.</p> Kalyan Pattanayak Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Epic Woman Stepping into Reality: Depiction of Draupadi with a Feminist Lens with Reference to Three Indian Novels <p>Lower status of women is a stain on any society. The problem is becoming glaring in India in the wake of atrocities caused against women ‘from womb to tomb’. Even in this twenty first century, the impact of manuvadi ideology is getting evidently felt. ‘A thinking woman spoils everything’ is still the mindset. Maladies like honour killing, bride burning are still gloating over the security of women in the wake of the internalized mindset of patriarchal dictum, viz. ‘A woman does not deserve any freedom’ (Na stri swatantryam arhati). Since time immemorial, she was always taken for granted though she had never remained silent. The depiction of Draupadi in various writings underscores woman’s protest against male dichotomy and her refusal to live by disabling definitions that mark women as inferior.</p> Prof. Prajakta S. Raut Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Women’s Simmering Discontent, and Emancipatory Attempts in Margaret Laurence’s The Fire-Dwellers <p><em>The Fire-Dwellers</em> (1969) is one of the Manawaka series novels of Margaret Laurence. The novel was written at the time when women’s emancipation movements were gaining momentum, primarily in the United States, but in other parts of the world as well. So, clearly, the narrative is largely affected by women’s simmering discontent with their stagnant lives in Canada too. The novel reflects Canadian women’s desire to free themselves from the common drudgery at home and to be part of a more active populace working outside the home, themselves writing the rules of their lives. The woman protagonist in the novel, Stacey MacAindra, is a common housewife taking care of her husband and their four children. She feels she is happy keeping the societal values intact but suddenly feels frustrated realizing one day that she is the only one in her family whose existence in the family is only for others, while to everyone else in the family their lives are important for themselves, not for others. However, my reading of <em>The Fire-Dwellers</em> is that Margaret Laurence was not in total disregard of family values, or for complete independence of women from the patriarchal system as we see it in women's emancipation movements today.&nbsp;</p> Dr. Bharti Tyagi , Rupa Rana Copyright (c) 2021 The Creative Launcher Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000